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Absolute Zero: Absolute Awesome
Image: iStockphoto.com/ShootOutLoud

Absolute Zero: Absolute Awesome

At least a million years ago, our ancestors discovered cooking. But what could they do with the leftovers? Only in the last 400 years have we developed the means to cool things down.

Cooling's not just for food, though. As you plunge below zero, some materials begin to conduct electricity with no resistance. And as you near absolute zero (cold's lower limit), atoms turn weird.

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Greatest Inventions: Frozen Foods

Greatest Inventions: Frozen Foods

Meet Clarence Birdseye, who in the 1920s patented a quick freezing process. By the 1950s, he had made frozen vegetables, fish, and meet popular with consumers. More...

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Discovery
It’s True: Hot Water Really Can Freeze Faster than Cold Water

It’s True: Hot Water Really Can Freeze Faster than Cold Water

When a 13-year-old student from Tanzania, Erato Mpemba, declared that hot water freezes faster than cold, his teacher made fun of him. Now his name is world-famous. More...

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WIRED
Just Keep Cool: How Evaporation Affects Heating and Cooling

Just Keep Cool: How Evaporation Affects Heating and Cooling

How come sweating cools us down? This hands-on activity and the "background" section that goes with it, will lead to perspiration illumination. More...

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Air Conditioning and Refrigeration

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration

What people eat, where they live, and much more, changed in the 20th century thanks to air conditioning and refrigeration. More...

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National Academy of Engineering
Anatomy of a Refrigerator

Anatomy of a Refrigerator

You rely on your fridge as much as your stove, but do you know how it works? Spend a few minutes with this interactive and you will. More...

Interactive
NOVA/PBS
Making SOLID Nitrogen!

Making SOLID Nitrogen!

Changes in temperature and pressure make ordinary substances behave in extraordinary ways. More...

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Veritasium
Milestones in Cold Research

Milestones in Cold Research

In the last 400 years, scientists have been steadily chilling things down, getting all the way to a billionth of a degree above absolute zero. More...

Interactive
NOVA/PBS
States of Matter

States of Matter

As you vary temperature and pressure in this interactive, substances change from gases to liquids to solids and back again. You can even make a Bose-Einstein condensate, the 4th state of matter. More...

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NOVA/PBS
BEC: What Is It and Where Did the Idea Come From?

BEC: What Is It and Where Did the Idea Come From?

How do scientists make things super-cold? You'll find a great explanation here, as well as lots of info about Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). More...

Interactive
University of Colorado, Boulder
Bose-Einstein Condensate: A New State of Matter

Bose-Einstein Condensate: A New State of Matter

In the 1920s, physicists Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose predicted that a new state of matter would form at super-cold temperatures. In the 1990s, scientists turned theory into reality. More...

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NOVA/PBS
Is Seawater a Last Resort to Cooling Japan’s Nuclear Reactors?

Is Seawater a Last Resort to Cooling Japan’s Nuclear Reactors?

Read about the extreme measures taken to cool down fuel in a Japanese nuclear power plant after a 2011 earthquake. More...

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Scientific American
Levitating Superconductor on a Mobius Strip

Levitating Superconductor on a Mobius Strip

This site uses ordinary magnets to explain superconductors' super powers. But they'd be even super cooler if they didn't have to be so super cold. More...

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The Royal Institution
Newton’s Law of Cooling Hot Pockets

Newton’s Law of Cooling Hot Pockets

For the math-letes among us, this site takes the guesswork out of how long to wait before eating a Hot Pocket. More...

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MathbyFive.com
Temperature

Temperature

What does temperature really mean, at the most basic level? Find out by watching this video. More...

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Cassiopeia Project

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